Monday, May 25, 2020

The Effect Of The Halo Effect - 1319 Words

According to social psychologists, 30 seconds is how long it takes for someone meeting you for the first time to form a list of determinations about your character and abilities. In 30 seconds, people form impressions of you based almost entirely on what they see – your clothes, hairstyle, smile, how you carry yourself, and the rest of your nonverbal communications. Appearances do count. These quick impressions can also be lasting ones. Psychologists call it the â€Å"halo effect.† (â€Å"Appearances and First,† 2011) The Halo Effect is the idea that global evaluations about a person (e.g. she is likeable) bleed over into judgements about their specific traits (e.g. she is intelligent). It was deemed the â€Å"halo effect† because our perception of others also creates a perception of a halo above their heads. People often only perceive what they want to perceive. An example of this affect is the obsession that some people have with celebrities. Because most Hollywood stars are attractive, we often associate other likable traits with them such as friendliness and intelligence. An experiment done by two professors at The University of Virginia, Richard Nisbett and Timothy Wilson, shows the effects of the halo effect. Nisbett and Wilson s experiment aimed to address and find an answer to the question regarding people s awareness of the halo effect. The researchers believe that people have little awareness of the nature of the halo effect, and that it influences their judgments andShow MoreRela tedHalo Effect : The Halo Effect821 Words   |  4 Pagesare constantly in motion to perceive others based on our own biases. In the field of Psychological Science, most researchers identified this manifestation as the What is Beautiful is Good Effect. To be more precise, most researchers try to engage and analysis an element of this they listed as the The Halo Effect. Both of these iconic ordeals factors into what the reality of beautiful truly is, or appears to be. How are these relatively abstract concepts exactly defined? One rather commonRead MoreThe Halo Effect Essay1249 Words   |  5 PagesThis idealization of thinness is also associated with one of our readings from Watts on fairness and justice. The halo effect is extremely similar to TV’s depiction of extremely thin women being often successful and happy. This effect emphasizes that people who are seen as attractive are often tied to other positive characteristics like being smart, wealthy, or friendly (Watts, 2011). This is definitely true in the media because people put so much importance on being attractive and often value peopleRead MoreThe Halo Effect And Stereotyping1567 Words   |  7 Pageson our personal experience. Perception shortcuts are tools that allow people to judge someone quickly and provide data for making decisions, but are sometimes incorrect and result in distortions. Two of these shortcuts are the halo effect and stereotyping. The halo effect is chara cterized by impressions and based on a single trait. Stereotyping, entails that someone would believe every person in a particular group is the same. Most often we would refer to these as judging a book by its cover; decisionsRead MoreHalo Effect Essay2917 Words   |  12 PagesThe halo effect refers to a bias whereby the perception of a positive trait in a person or product positively influences further judgments about traits of that person or products by the same manufacturer. One of the more common halo effects is the judgment that a good looking person is intelligent and amiable. There is also a reverse halo effect whereby perception of a negative or undesirable trait in individuals, brands, or other things influences further negative judgments about the traits ofRead More halo effect and recency effect Essay491 Words   |  2 Pagesconducting my research for this training are as follows: Ønbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The â€Å"halo effect† which as the name implies causes supervisors to only see the â€Å"angel† in an employee and blinds them by ignoring smaller problem areas that require growth and development.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;(San Joaquin County Human Resources Division, 2002) Ønbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The â€Å"comparing employees effect† evaluates one employee to another employee without considering the different tasks theyRead MoreThe Halo Effect On Job Prospects1462 Words   |  6 Pagespeoples perception is caused by the Halo effect, this is a cognitive bias of ones impression on that person. This bias can influences the individual’s behaviour and cause judgments taken apron that person. Also known as the â€Å"physical attractiveness stereotype† and the what is beautiful is good. The halo effect refers to how people are rated by their attractiveness of individuals more for their personality and their traits and characteristics. The Halo effect is also used to describe an impressionRead MoreEssay Meaning and influences of The Halo Effect962 Words   |  4 PagesIf it is, you would need to know what the Halo effect is. This effect consists in making good judgments about a person base on one of his or her character ´s aspec t. To make clear, who have never listen or think that beautiful people are smart, or that people who wear glasses are nerds. I am pretty sure that you have criticized someone by using some of these statements. Therefore, you have used the Halo Effect to draw conclusions about a person. This effect can be present in different aspects of ourRead MoreHalo Effect Of Attractiveness On Altruistic Behaviors907 Words   |  4 PagesHalo Effect of Attractiveness on Altruistic Behaviors 1. Introduction/Overview a. The current study of research seeks to identify the effects of an individual’s physical appearance on the altruistic behaviors of strangers. b. Those who are considered physically attractive by societal norms are often stereotyped as highly intelligent individuals who have positive characteristics. However, those who are considered unattractive are often stereotyped as unintelligent disagreeable individuals. cRead MoreMisunderstanding The Nature Of Company Performance : The Halo Effect And Other Business Delusions1148 Words   |  5 PagesPerformance: The Halo Effect and Other Business Delusions by Phil Rosenzweig. The research processes that have been completed on business performances over the years, and the strengths and weaknesses of the types of data used will be discussed. The Halo Effect will be evaluated, and examples from my career will be given to help with understanding the topic at hand. I will give thoughts, ideas, and solutions I plan to adapt and work on in my career to help avoid the Halo Effect in my daily life andRead MoreApple Re Entering The Corporate Market Via The Iphone And Ipad Halo Effect1414 Words   |  6 Pagesabout. Having taught customers to use touch gestures, Apple is now going to teach us how to speak to computers (almost unavoidably, in a specific Apple dialect of speech interaction). Apple Re-entering the Corporate Market via the iPhone and iPad Halo Effect In recent years a large part of Apple s strategy seems focused on the Corporate marketplace. The company is careful to maintain its brand values as it engages with corporations: it positions itself as facilitating the use of the individual s

Thursday, May 14, 2020

TV Violence A Cause of Abnormal Behavior - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 885 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/08/08 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Television Violence Essay Did you like this example? Television is viewed by millions of people around the world on a daily basis. Every time you turn a television on, you witness explosions from bombings, threats, just violence in general, and that is just from the news channel itself. But television is not just bad, it could be beneficial as well. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "TV Violence A Cause of Abnormal Behavior" essay for you Create order Media has also been shown to reduce stress, inspire creativity and promote healthy living. But how exactly is television affecting us on a day to day basis? Television affects people because it has been known to promote fear, shows risky behavior that can affect a childs actions, and affect brain development. Fear is an unpleasant emotion caused by the belief that someone or something dangerous is likely to be a threat. People have been afraid of many things since they were a child, but why is that? Fear has been known to be promoted by television. According to Television Opposing Viewpoints, violent programming encourages hostile behavior and leads people to think of the world as threatening and dangerous(Gale, 19). This shows that watching the news for example from a childs point of view makes them believe that the world is scary or even watching a scary movie could make them be afraid of the dark. Although there is nothing bad with having fear, there could be some good things that come from being afraid. Being afraid guides us towards what is important to us and motivates us into doing action. It also triggers reflexes that allows you to know what is right from what is wrong. For example according to Lifehacks.org, it could increase your survival rate like how your ancestors ran away f rom a tiger as a way to survive because of the fear of being eaten. Fear is what kept them alive but could also lead to risky behavior because being afraid of the outside world leads them to turn to other forms of solution to try to get away from fear. Risky behavior is said to those who expose themselves or others into harm. It is another thing affecting a childs behavior due to television. Drug abuse is an example of risky behavior that comes with consequences. Advertisements of alcohol abuse are seen every day as well as drug abuse such as smoking. Smoking advertisements were banned due to the fact that cigarette advertising have restricted their coverage of smoking and health in the 1970s according to Pubmed.gov. Even though we dont see smoking advertisements anymore, you could often see people abusing this substance in television programs and movies. Many children who watch television more than five hours see people abusing the substance and makes them believe that smoking could be okay to use. The same goes with liquor, but unlike cigarettes, you see liquor advertisements daily. According to Whyy.org a recent study by the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth found that adolescent presentation to liquor ads on TV expanded by 30 percent from 2001 to 2006. Watching programs with drug abuse as a child make them more likely for them to abuse in their early teens. Smoking at a young age causes it to be more likely to have lung cancer due to the inhaling of the smoke and seeing beer and liquor advertisements on television may promote early age drinking which could later lead to alcohol-related problems. Drug abuse could also cause problems in the brain. The brain is a complex organ made up of more than a hundred billion nerves. The brain is very important to us and television could be a big factor that affects its development. According to Urbanchildinstitute.org about two-thirds of children age six and under watch television every day, usually for around two hours. Infants exposure to television has been linked to delayed language development and kindergarten readiness skills. Urban child institute also says that TV use at age three has been linked to behavior problems and to long-term effects on social development, classroom engagement, and academic achievement. This states that watching too much television at a really early age could mean children putting in less effort into school which could be bad for them later on in life. Irregular sleeping habits could also affect the brain because it is allowing people to have less sleep and therefore their brain will not functioning correctly during the day. As much as there is bad things that are involved in watching television at a young age, there are also good things that come with watching it so young. Watching television at a young age could encourage active viewing. According to Childmind.org Strategies that actively engage young children during screen time include asking open-ended questions and also knowing to pause play. In conclusion, television affects people because it has been known to promote fear, shows risky behavior that can affect a childs actions, and affect brain development. Although there are more reasons why television affects people, there are also many reason why watching television could be good for you. Media has been shown to reduce stress, inspire creativity and promote healthy living. Media could also encourage active viewing. More than two-thirds of children watch at least two hours or more of television everyday. This could lead them to the exposure of drugs and alcohol abuse, unwanted fear or aggression, and affect brain development.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Creation Of Mickey Mouse - 1136 Words

The Creation Of Mickey Mouse Oswald is my character, I m the one who created the rabbit with a round, white face, big button nose and floppy black ears, That was all my creation! I shouted frustrated. We know that Walt, but if you just -, Scott an executive at Universal tried explaining to me before I cut him off. I shouted again, No, I made this rabbit and I refuse to let you guys take it all away! Listen, Walt were giving you a chance to keep Disney only if you just take a lower salary, Scott tried explaining once again. A lower salary? What even is this mess? Nothing he s say is making since and why should I consider taking a lower salary.... I want explanations. You can t just come and try to take what I build and created away from me, Walt defended. Scott tried to reason with me again, We re offering you a chance to keep everything, all you have to do is agree to receiving lower pay. No, there has to be a reason why you re doing this, I questioned not listening to what Scott was trying to explain. We tol d you this before, Oswald is currently riding high and you have the upper hand in all of this, but currently you have hired away all of your employees so this is your only decision, Scott explained. Oh I see now, they just want a part of all the hard work I did. But, why should I let them? The didn t help me one bit. I said angrily, None of this makes since and I m not agreeing to anything. Well then I guess you better come upShow MoreRelatedMickey Mouse1393 Words   |  6 PagesMICKEY MOUSE, Walt Disney s most famous character, made his screen debut on November 18, 1928, as star of the first sound cartoon, Steamboat Willie. Since his debut, Mickey Mouse has become an international personality whose success laid the financial foundation upon which Walt Disney built his creative organization. Besides being the personification of everything Disney, Mickey Mouse has become one of the most universal symbols of the Twentieth Century. Mickey Mouse was born in Walt DisneyRead MoreWalt Disney Has Left On Society And How His Legacy Continues1393 Words   |  6 PagesPurpose: To inform the audience about the impact Walt Disney has left on society and how his legacy continues on. Thesis/Central Idea: To understand the impact Walt Disney has left on society, it is important to learn that his empire all started with a mouse, how his newfound success contributed to his ability to create accomplished film works, and eventually bring his imagination to life through the construction of Disney parks. Organizational Pattern: Topical I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: WaltRead MoreCasey Blackwell. Spc 1608. Professor Workman. 7 February1234 Words   |  5 PagesCasey Blackwell SPC 1608 Professor Workman 7 February 2017 Walt Disney Introduction I. Open With Impact A. A creative person famously stated â€Å"It all started with a mouse.† You may be thinking that you know who this mouse is, but not too fast. Yes, it is Mickey Mouse, but who was the brilliant man that created this happy little creature? II. Thesis Statement A. Walt Disney has made a significant impact to the entertainment industry with his cartoons, movies, and theme parks. III. Connect With AudienceRead MoreEssay on The Life of Walt Disney1667 Words   |  7 Pagesto be the impossible and created a Disney empire that was made up of cartoons, movies, amusement parks, and much more entertainment. To think if Walt Disney never shared his visions with the world, there would be no animation, amusement parks, Mickey Mouse, or any classic Disney movies like Snow White, Mary Poppins, or Beauty and the Beast. Also, children wouldn’t have gotten to experience walking through Cinderella’s Castle into Magic Kingdom, a child’s oasis. Although Walt Disney is no longer withRead MoreInspiring Many : The True Story Of Walt Disney1352 Words   |  6 PagesHe would sell newspapers, popcorn, and soda to travelers (JustDisney.com). After being rejected by the military, Walt worked for the Red Cross driving an ambulance. The ambulance he ran was anything but normal. Walt s was drawn with his very own creations. He drew things all over it to make it hi s own. (â€Å"About Walt Disney†). In the beginning of his career he worked with Ub Iwerks, this is where he worked on two-minute shorts called â€Å"Laugh-O-Grams,† but soon went bankrupt with them (University Meghan’sRead MoreWalt Disney : The Man Behind These Characters, And The Creation Of One Of The World1039 Words   |  5 PagesALMOST EVERYONE KNOWS THE CHARACTERS OF MICKEY MOUSE, MINNIE MOUSE, AND DONALD DUCK. WALT DISNEY WAS THE MAN BEHIND THESE CHARACTERS AND MANY MORE. A BOY BORN IN CHICAGO, IL AND MADE HIS WAY TO HOLLYWOOD, CA CREATED MANY OF THE GREATEST CARTOON CHARACTERS AND BROUGHT FAIRY TALES TO LIFE. THE DISNEY NAME IS KNOWN NOT ONLY FOR CARTOONS BUT MOVIES, TELEVISION, RADIO, AND THE CREATION OF ONE OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST AMUSEMENT PARKS. WALT WAS BORN IN CHICAGO, IL IN 1901, ONE OF FIVE CHILDREN, 4 BOYSRead MoreWalt Disney America`s Great American665 Words   |  3 PagesOn December 5, 1901, Elias Disney and Flora Call Disney gave birth to a man who would eventually change our world by the creation of a little mouse. Walter Elias Disney, who was also known as â€Å"Walt,† was born in a small town in Chicago, Illinois, by a father who was an Irish-Canadian descent, and his mother who was a German- English descent. Walt was one out of five children, four brothers and a sister. Their names were Herbert Arthur Disney, Raymond Arnold Disney, Roy Oliver Disney, and Ruth FloraRead MoreWhy Do Dreams Come True?1712 Words   |  7 PagesWalt Disney. Through a long road of rewrites, rejections, and reconstructions, Disney created a new look for the entertainment in America. It all started with one little cartoon mouse, originally named Mortimer Mouse, but later changed to a more recognizable name of Mickey Mouse. Not o nly did Walt Disney create Mickey Mouse, but he also developed many other famous works, including Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Bambi, and Peter Pan. All of these movies and shows were developed under the Walt DisneyRead MoreThe Magic of Walt Disney 838 Words   |  3 Pageschanged and improved because he â€Å"†¦pioneered the fields of animation, and found new ways to teach, and educate† (â€Å"Walt Disney, Biography†). Walt Disney was a man that made a magical company come about by taking inspiration from his own life, creating Mickey Mouse, drawing animations, filming his first movies and expanding the company that came about. The Disney Company came about by Walt Disney’s inspirations throughout himself. Walt was a boy who loved and had an interest to draw ever since he wasRead MoreWalt Disney : The World s First Theme Park1044 Words   |  5 Pagescharacter Mickey Mouse. Originally, Mickey was portrayed as an airplane pilot, then an adventurous pirate. Disney’s first sound movie was called â€Å"The Jazz Singer†, which led to the world’s first talking-and-music cartoon called â€Å"Steamboat Willie† featuring Mickey Mouse. Because the cartoon was getting so much positive attention, Disney decided to add a few new characters by the names of Minnie Mouse (Mickey’s girlfriend), Goofy, Plato, and Donald Duck. After eight years of its creation, Mickey Mouse was

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Business Process Outsourcing Decision-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Business Outsourcing Advantages and Disadvantages. Answer: Introduction Due to globalization ways of doing business have changed across the globe. Globalization brought in changes by making the business market to go global and this has resulted in the changes in the business dynamics and it has increased the business competition. Moreover, with the emergence of third world countries as emerging markets and rapid development in technology and communication new models of business have come into existence. To grab the opportunities offered by the emerging markets and globalization, business organizations have started to focus on their core strengths or core business activities and outsourcing many of their services to other companies. In business outsourcing, the company outsources its number of services like maintenance, IT management, IT services, etc. to other companies which may reside in the same country or overseas. The business outsourcing offers advantages in enhancing the company core competencies, expanding the company market bases and increased r evenue due to cost savings. But the business outsourcing is not an easy task and poses challenges which are to be dealt in a strategic manner to enjoy the benefits of this business model. This work examines the advantages and disadvantages of Business outsourcing. Project Objective The objective of this work is to examine the business outsourcing advantages and disadvantages from the existing literature works Literature Review Business Outsourcing Definition Motive Business outsourcing is a business strategy where some of the operations or business processes which can be executed in-house by the organization are subcontracted to another organization for a given period of time. These tasks can be then performed on-site or off-site. Literature has various references to thedefinition of business outsourcing. According to Gantman, (2011), Business outsourcing is said to take place when a company transfers some of its activities to an outside company and this outsourcing is said to be offshore if these tasks are performed by the organization residing in some other country. Similarly, according to Gerbl et al. (2015), the business outsourcing is a management strategy by a business organization where in the organization outsources some of its non-core functions to specialized and efficient companies which act as the service providers. The whole company and its businessare affected by the strategic decisionof business process outsourcing. There are many reasons for which the organization may outsource its business activities. Themostcommon motivation for business outsourcing is cost reduction. For others, it may be an opportunity to enhance the focus of the organization on the core business activities (Hanafizadeh et al, 2017). According to Hen et al. (2013), the main reason for worldwidebusiness outsourcing is high-wage organizationscan take benefits of low market wage rates for example inoverseas countries where the labor rates are lower than the original country labor rates. From the study of Alaghehband et al. (2011), it is found that reducing its working costs, and starting a worldwide presence and to become more strong and more competitive in the market are the main reasons which drive thecompany to adapt the business strategy of outsourcing. Outsourcing is a method which is very demanding and needs proper monitoring while implementation. To confirmefficient business outsourcing there are seven steps of the life-cycle of outsourcing which must be regularly implemented by the company (Lacity et al., 2011). The seven steps are: (1) strategic valuation; (2) requirement analysis (3) vendor evaluation; (4) cooperation and negotiation supervision; (5) launching of project and change; (6) correlation management; and (7) extension modification. Outsourcing is destined to failure if any one of the above seven steps is performed incompetently (Lacity et al., 2011). Advantages: Business outsourcing has proven to be a very advantageous business strategy in many cases. Due to business outsourcing, the company can redirect its attention to the core competencies of the company and thus can give enough time to enhance its core values and services. The other activities are managed by the company to whom the tasks have been outsourced. In 2003 Procter and Gamble outsourced its operations of facilities management support to the company and this provided the company a financial saving due to the lower international labor rates (Lacity et al., 2012). Apart from enhanced revenue outsourcing provided various advantages. According to the research conducted by Mann et al. (2016), the various positive impacts of the outsourcing on any organization are as follows: Due to outsourcing, there is an increase in the benefits due to re-engineering. The company that outsources the tasks is able to earn cash back and have cost reduction due to outsourcing (Mann et al. , 2016). Outsourcing provides gain to world class capabilities, technology, and innovation Due to outsourcing, many company core resources can be used for other purposes that can be used to enhance the company services (Mann et al., 2016). due to outsourcing it is easier to have areevaluation of the problematic functions of the core company outsourcing enhances the company focus on core activities It becomes easier for the company to make capital funds be available for the company the overall operational costs are reduced due to outsourcing Risk minimization occurs due to outsourcing (Mann et al., 2016). According to Lacity et al (2014), the four advantages of strategic partnership due to business outsourcingdefined by these four advantages are as follows;(1) enhancing knowledge management; (2) external visibility enhances; (3) internal coordination is easily provided; and (4) intervention and accountability is maintained Massini et al. (2012),emphasize the (1) hiring good professional skills; (2) choosing partnerships can be done; and (3) external solutions integration as the main positive impacts of outsourcing. Thus the overall advantages of the business outsourcing from various literaturecan be presented as follows: Operating costs (control and reduction). Rather than employing specialist expensive employees for particular tasks that may be for a small duration thus making the employee be ideal for rest of the time, in such scenario outsourcing proves to be a beneficial option. Outsourcing firms are cheaper because they provide similar kind of services to many companies parallel and thus get benefits from those companies. By outsourcing the companies are able to get labor at lower rates and are relieved from the burden of hiring the expertise for a particular task. By doing so the company is able to have financial gains (Mihalache et al, 2012). Improved flexibility:Fixed costs are changed into flexible costs by removing departments from the staff payroll and buying in services when needed. Improves the working and conditions according to the growth of the organization. And contracts can be canceled if demand falls much more rapidly than closing down whole firms maintained and controlled by the business. Improved company focus: By outsourcing peripheral actions the management of a business can focus on the main and beneficial aims and reliableresponsibilities of the business (Mihalache et al, 2012). Allowing the better services andincomes that are not available within the firms to be used. Some outsourcing firms hire good specialists that small to medium size In other areas the inner resources are freed: For improving customer services if the human resource department of an insurance company is closed and the functions bought in, then computer services and resulting office space can be made available (Mihalache et al, 2012). Disadvantages Business outsourcing poses severe challenges to the company and thus requires a degree of caution before the strategy is implemented. Moreover, regular monitoring of the implementation is required to ensure that the outsourcing takes place smoothly and its benefits are utilized. But some of the disadvantages are as follows: From the studies and research by Willcocks et al. (2011), business costs, hollowing out, opportunistic behavior and reduced learning etc. are the main disadvantages identified due to theoutsourcing of the business. The hollowing out is described as the losing of knowledge about the employees which are merely controlled and owned by the company. Sometimes hollowing become the main cause of non-attracting of the good and talented workers to the company. It becomes very difficult when the vendor of the company obtains the knowledge-process of the helping clients, the changing costs to return back to the in-house action. Hollowing can also lead the opportunistically motivated actions of the vendor towards its clients about decreasing of service levels and pricing a contract renewal. If delays or legal process can happen then renewing of the contract, establishing, monitoring the agreement and transaction of costs would affect the whole business of the organizations.Lastly, the external s ervice provider can take whatever the learning and innovation take place (Lacity et al., 2014). Customer conflict: Itcan take numerousmethods.To understand foreign operators overseas telephone call centers have controlled to criticism about incapability. Over dependability and quality of the products, bought-in functions and workings can raise many doubts in the mind of thecustomer (Massini et al., 2012). Security issues: Business outsourcing makes use of other companies and thus trusts and security issues are amajor concern. In thecase of information technology based outsourcing, there is a risk of losing important business data and this may lead to the loss of reputation of the business (Schmeisser, 2013). Ethical worries: If outsourcing isstarted by organizations in other countries with improper human rights andservice rights records, it can be inexpensive for the business that has outsourced and shall have ethical issues like labor rights, respect, equal employment opportunity etc (Nieto et al, 2011). Lack of jobs in the business: A loss of job safety and decreasing motivation are faced by the workers which are directly employed by the firms.Negative publicity can result from redundancies, mainly when the business is responsible for hiring very low-wage employees in other parts of the world to change the jobs lost. The organization'smoralvaluesmight be examined.Relocation of business overseas canmake potential dismissals for a company and the workers might show alack of interest or lack of excellence at work (Moon et al, 2010). Outsourcing the communication-related difficulties is one of the major issues faced by firms. According to the study, the bestappropriate contractor lives on the other part of the world. So, one does not gets a chance to talk to them as thesimilar way the things occur in the organization with the team members. Talking or chatting on Skype or any other similar web app can help both the contractor for overcoming this problem easily and gently but still communication. But there might be differences in cultural issues and the style of working differences which may pose challenges of difference in management and control. This if goes unmanaged may lead to the failure of the partnership and loss to the outsourcing company (Weigelt et al.,2012). Quality matters. The Internal processes of thefirm will be supervised by the firms own quality check system. If the outside contractors are performing important functions of the firm then it will not be good for the growth of a firm. There is a need of clear contract with least service-level contracts. And also ensuring the product quality and customer services standards by the quality assurance staff (Willcocks et al. 2011). Conclusion Business outsourcing is said to take place when a company transfers some of its activities to an outside company and this outsourcing is said to be offshore if these tasks are performed by the organization residing in some other country. The whole company and its business are affected by the strategic decision of business process outsourcing. There are many reasons for which the organization may outsource its business activities. The most common motivation for business outsourcing is cost reduction. For others, it may be an opportunity to enhance the focus of the organization on the core business activities. But it can lead to loss of reputation of the business and pose severe threats to the security and privacy of the data of the company. References Gantman, S., (2011). IT Outsourcing in the Public Sector: A Literature Analysis. Journal of Global Information Technology Management. 14, 2 (Apr. 2011), 48--83. Gerbl M., Mclvor,R.,Loane,S.,Humphreys, P. (2015). A multi-theory approach to understanding the business process outsourcing decision. Journal of World Business. Volume 50, Issue 3, July 2015, PP. 505-518. Hanafizadeh, P., ZareRavasan, A. (2017). An investigation into the factors influencing the outsourcing decision of e-banking services: A multi-perspective Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing. HEN, J., HONG, H., JIANG, W. and KUBIK, J. D. (2013) Outsourcing Mutual Fund Management: Firm Boundaries, Incentives, and Performance. The Journal of Finance, 68: 523558. doi:10.1111/jofi.12006 Alaghehband, ,Rivard, S., Wu, S. and Goyette, S. (2011), An assessment of the use of transaction cost theory in information technology outsourcing, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 125-138. Lacity, ,Willcocks, L. and Khan, S. (2011), Beyond transaction cost economics: towards an endogenous theory of information technology outsourcing, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 139-157. Lacity, M. and Willcocks, P. (2012), Advanced Outsourcing Practice: Rethinking ITO, BPO, and Cloud Services, Palgrave, London. Mann, L., Graham, M.(2016). The Domestic Turn: Business Process Outsourcing and the Growing Automation of Kenyan Organisations. The Journal of Development Studies. Vol. 52, 4. Lacity,M., Willcocks,L. (2014) "Business process outsourcing and dynamic innovation", Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal. Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing. 7 Issue: 1, pp.66-92, https://doi.org/10.1108/SO-11-2013-0023 Massini, S. and Miozzo, M. (2012), Outsourcing and offshoring of business services: challenges to theory, management, and geography of innovation, Regional Studies, Vol. 46 No. 9, pp. 1219-1242. Mihalache, R., Jansen, J.J.J.P., Van Den Bosch, F.A.J. and Volberda, H.W. (2012), Offshoring and firm innovation: the moderating role of top management team attributes, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 33 No. 12, pp. 1480-1498. Moon, ,Swar, B.,Choe, Y. , Chung, M. and Jung, G. (2010), Innovation in IT outsourcing relationships: where is the best practice of IT outsourcing in the public sector?, Innovation: Management, Policy Practice, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 217-226. Nieto, M. and Rodrguez, A. (2011), Offshoring of RD: looking abroad to improve innovation performance, Journal of International Business Studies, 42, pp. 345-361. Schmeisser, B. (2013), A systematic review of literature on offshoring of value chain activities, Journal of International Management, Vol. 19 No. 4, pp. 390-406 Weigelt, C. and Sarkar, M. (2012), Performance implications of outsourcing for technological innovations: managing the efficiency and adaptability trade-off, Strategic Management Journal, 33 No. 2, pp. 189-216. Willcocks, , Cullen, S. and Craig, A. (2011), The Outsourcing Enterprise, Palgrave, London.

Friday, April 10, 2020

The Effects Of Fresh Garlic Extract On Acetaminophen Essay Example

The Effects Of Fresh Garlic Extract On Acetaminophen Essay Introduction Oxidative emphasis and lipid peroxidation play cardinal functions in the pathogenesis and patterned advance of several upsets. Cancer, ageing, coronary artery disease, and inflammatory procedures have all been linked to the coevals of reactive O species and toxic metabolites of lipid peroxidation reactions. 1, 2, 3 In many theoretical accounts, depletion of liver glutathione shops and other antioxidant molecules constitute an of import mechanism for the initiation of oxidative emphasis and the attendant harm to biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids, and the activation of atomic written text factors that may be of import in the coevals of proinflammatory cytokines. Several anti-oxidants have been used in the intervention of oxidative stress-mediated diseases, including vitamins ( C and E ) , carotenoids, and minerals such as Se. 9, 10, 11,12 Besides, ethnomedical patterns have relied on the usage of works merchandises which are now known to incorporate antioxidant secondary metabolites.13 Garlic and garlic merchandises have been employed in medical pattern since antiquity. Assorted pharmacological surveies have besides reported on the benefits of its infusions and merchandises on critical physiological maps including their antioxidant, 14 cardioprotective, 15 hepatoprotective, 16 anticancer 17 and anti-inflammatory effects. 18 However, most of these surveies focused on the usage of aged garlic infusion ( AGE ) or other commercial merchandises. Here we report on the anti-oxidant and anti-lipid peroxidative belongingss of fresh ethanolic infusion of local Ugandan cultivars of Allium sativum in mice theoretical accounts of Datril induced lipid per oxidation and oxidative emphasis. We hypothesize that regular ingestion of fresh Allium sativum could forestall oxidative emphasis and protect against diseases associated with oxidative emphasis and lipid peroxidation reactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects Of Fresh Garlic Extract On Acetaminophen specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects Of Fresh Garlic Extract On Acetaminophen specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects Of Fresh Garlic Extract On Acetaminophen specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer 1. Collection, Identification, and Processing of Garlic Bulbs. Bulbs of a local assortment of garlic ( Allium sativum L. ) were obtained from Ishaka Town in Western Uganda, and identified by a qualified taxonomer. Cold extraction of the Allium sativum was carried out at room temperature ( 18-22 O C ) as follows: Fresh Allium sativum bulbs were land to a all right paste utilizing a mechanical bomber and 50 g of the paste was put in a 250 milliliter conelike flask and covered with 100 milliliters of 80 % ethyl alcohol, stoppered with cotton wool, and allowed to stand in the dark at room temperature for 48 hours. The ethanolic infusion was filtered off with a Whatman no. paper into pre-weighed evaporating dishes, while the residue in the flask was washed with a farther 100 milliliter of 80 % ethyl alcohol and added to the infusions in the evaporating dishes. The filtrates were so evaporated to a syrupy residue utilizing a rotary extractor at 40 O C. The dishes were so weighed once more on a ternary beam balance and the per centum output was calcula ted as follows: Weight of extract = weight of vaporizing dish after vaporization weight of dish before add-on of infusion ; Percentage output = entire weight of extract ? weight of paste used ( 50 g ) A- 100. The infusions were pooled together into an airtight container and stored refrigerated ( at -4 oC ) until required for usage. For usage, a part of the infusion was weighed and dissolved in normal saline solution. Fresh readyings were made on each twenty-four hours of the experiment. The resulting solutions were injected intraperitonially into the mice. 2. Lab Animals Swiss mice 6-8 hebdomads old weighing 18-32 g were obtained from the Pharmacology Department of the Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda. They were maintained and habituated in plastic coops in the carnal house of the School of Health Sciences, Kampala International University, Western Campus for one hebdomad, and so after used for the surveies. The mice had free entree to H2O and were fed standard gnawer pellets ( purchased from a local commercial provider ) ad libitum. Addiction conditions were 12 hour dark/light rhythms, and mean environmental temperature of 20 o C. 3. Acute Toxicity Test and Determination of LD50 The LD50 of the infusion was determined in the mice by the process described by Bernas et Al. ( 2004 ) .19 The assurance interval of the LD50 was estimated by the Litchfield Wilcoxon method utilizing a computing machine software.20 4. Experimental Design Thirty Swiss mice of both sexes were used for the experimental survey. The animate beings were grouped indiscriminately into 6 groups of 5 each and administered with the drugs/extracts as follows: Group I received physiological saline i.p. merely ; group II received acetaminophen 250 mg/kg i.p. individual dosage merely ; group III was given garlic infusion 250 mg/kg for 5 yearss before a individual i.p. dosage of acetaminophen 250 mg/kg ; group IV received 500 mg/kg garlic infusion for 5 yearss before 250 mg/kg Datril ; group V were given 750 mg/kg garlic infusion for 5 yearss before 250 mg/kg Datril ; group VI received 25 mg/kg silymarin for 5 yearss before a individual i.p dosage of acetaminophen 250 mg/kg. The infusion was administered as a individual one time day-to-day dosages, while Datril was administered after 12 hours fast. 5. Sample Collection The mice were sacrificed under quintessence anesthesia, and their livers were obtained from the mice washed with ice cold normal saline, followed by 0.15 M Tris-buffer ( pH 7.4 ) , blotted and weighed. The liver was so homogenized in 0.15 M Tris buffer to a concentration of 10 g per 100ml of homogenate and used for TBARS, glutathione, catalase, and SOD checks. 6. Biochemical Assays Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ( TBARS ) in the liver homogenates were estimated by the method of Ohkawa et al 21 as a step of lipid peroxidation reactions. Catalase activities in the homogenates were estimated by the method of Johansson and Borg, 22 ( which depended on the reaction between methyl alcohol and catalase in the presence of H peroxide ) with kits obtained from Calbiochem USA. Superoxide dismutase check was estimated by the method of Kakkar et Al, 23 utilizing kits obtained from Calbiochem. The NWLSS GSH spectrophotometric assay kit was used for the appraisal of glutathione in the homogenates ( Northwest Life Sciences Specialties LLC, USA ) . In this method, 5-5 dithiobis ( 2-Nitrobenzoic acid ) DTNB, reacts with glutathione to organize 5-thionitrobenzoic acid ( TNB ) which has optimum soaking up at a wavelength of 412 nanometers. The maker s protocol was purely followed. 7. Datas Analysis Datas were presented as average AÂ ± criterion mistake of the mean. Statistical analysis was by the one manner analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) utilizing the SPSS version 10 package, and a P value lt ; 0.05 was considered important. Consequence Administration of toxic doses of Datril produced pronounced depletion of the liver glutathione shops and the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and important lift of lipid peroxidation merchandises estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ( TBARS ) . Liver glutathione degree in group II was significantly lower than in the negative control ( p lt ; 0.005 ) as are SOD ( P lt ; 0.001 ) and catalase ( p lt ; 0.05 ) . The liver TBARS degree in group II was significantly higher than in group I ( P lt ; 0.005 ) . The disposal of fresh Allium sativa infusion and silymarin protected against these alterations in a dose dependent mode and brought the values to degrees comparable to those of the negative controls ( P gt ; 0.01 ) as shown in table 1 and in figure 1. Table 1:Liver TBARS, GSH, SOD, and CAT of mice in the six groups Group Treatment TBARS ( mM/Kg ) GSH ( ug/mg protein ) Turf ( U/g liver ) CAT ( U/g liver ) I. NEG CONTROL 0.5 Master of Library Science Normal saline i.p. 11.5 Â ± 2.5 48Â ± 4.6 85Â ±6.8 85Â ±4.4 II. POS CONTROL 250 mg/Kg APAP i.p. 26.2 Â ± 1.8 P lt ; 0.005 12Â ±2.4 P lt ; 0.001 14Â ±3.6 P lt ; 0.001 50Â ± 3.9 P lt ; 0.05 III. 250 mg/Kg APAP + 250 mg/Kg garlic infusion 20 Â ±1.2 P lt ; 0.01 27Â ±4.1 P lt ; 0.01 californium. group I P lt ; 0.005 californium. group II 38Â ±2.1 P lt ; 0.001 californium. group I P lt ; 0.005 californium. group II 65Â ± 2.0 P lt ; 0.01 californium. group I P lt ; 0.05 californium. group II Four 250mg/Kg APAP + 500 mg/Kg garlic infusion 15.1 Â ±0.8 P gt ; 0.05 californium. group I ; p lt ; 0.01 californium. group II 32Â ±3.1 P lt ; 0.05 californium. group I P lt ; 0.001 californium. group II 44Â ±1.8 P lt ; 0.01 californium. group I P lt ; 0.0001 californium. group II 74Â ± 1.8 P lt ; 0.05 californium. group I P lt ; 0.005 californium. group II Volt 250 mg/kg APAP + 750 mg/Kg garlic infusion 12.2 Â ± 0.6 P gt ; 0.1 californium. group I ; P lt ; 0.001 californium. group II 38Â ±2.8 P lt ; 0.05 californium. group I P lt ; 0.001 californium. group II 62Â ±2.5 P lt ; 0.05 californium. group I ; P lt ; 0.001 californium. group II 82Â ± 2.4 P gt ; 0.1 californium. group I ; P lt ; 0.01 californium. group II Six 250 mg/Kg APAP + 25 mg/Kg silymarin 10.8 Â ±0.8 P gt ; 0.1 californium. group I ; P lt ; 0.005 californium. group II 45Â ±2.9 P gt ; 0.1 californium. group I ; P lt ; 0.0001 californium. group II 76Â ±4.8 P gt ; 0.1 californium. group I ; P lt ; 0.005 californium. group II 78Â ±2.5 P gt ; 0.1 californium. group I ; P lt ; 0.000 californium. group II Discussion Natural antioxidants play important functions in the bar and intervention of many organic and inflammatory diseases associated with oxidative stress.24 Polyphenols and flavonoids that are present in plant-derived merchandises are widely reported to exercise important influences on the remotion of reactive O and N species and have been utile in such diseases as diabetes mellitus and artherosclerosis.25 This survey demonstrated that fresh Allium sativa infusion exerted important protection against oxidative emphasis and lipid peroxidation induced by Datril overdose. It besides showed that fresh Allium sativa preserved liver GSH, and up-regulated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the liver. These observations are consistent with the ascertained effects of infusions from other workss in continuing liver GSH 26, and more so agrees with the study of Sabaya and others 27 in the relation to the action of Allium sativa infusion on valproic acid induced hepatotoxicity. In this re gard, Allium sativa mimics the activities of cysteine prodrugs such as N-acetyl cysteine ( NAC ) and S-adenosyl methionine ( SAM ) , which are known to continue liver GSH degrees in Datril hepatotoxicity 28, 29. It is besides possible that the infusion prevented GSH depletion by forestalling NAPQI formation in Datril overdose. The mechanism here could be suppression of enzymes of stage I metabolism, notably CYP2E1 and CYP3A, which are the primary enzymes responsible for acetaminophen biotransformation into NAPQI. Greenbaltt et al30 have shown that certain H2O soluble components of aged Allium sativum can suppress CYP3A in normal human liver microsomes. It has been suggested that drugs which can cut down cytochrome P450 mediated NAPQI formation such as Co chloride, Tagamet, and piperonyl butoxide could protect the liver against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity 31, 32. Several studies have besides shown that isothiocyanate and allyl sulphide compounds of Allium sativa inhibited cytochrome P450 enzymes such as CYP2E1 that act in stage I metamorphosis of acetaminophen 33, 34 Besides, several other surveies have reported that Allium sativa and Allium cepa ( onion ) organic sulfides are capable of hei ghtening glutathione S transferase activity in the liver,35 and isothiocyanate is a really powerful inducer of stage II metabolizing enzymes such as quinone reductase and glutathione -S transferase.36, 37 Allium sativa may besides speed up NAPQI elimination by supplying substrates that are required for its junction. Such substrates may include thiol ( organosulphure ) compounds, aminic acids, and sulphate ions. It may besides accomplish this by increasing NAPQI binding to glucuronic acid.38 Investigation of these possibilities requires surveies of the pharmacokinetics of NAPQI in animate beings having Allium sativa infusion, and the effects of Allium sativa infusion on cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for NAPQI metamorphosis. GSH saving could ensue from the supply of substrates for GSH biogenesis by the Allium sativa infusion. Allium sativa is known to incorporate organic sulfides such as S-allyl cysteine ( SAC ) and S-allyl mercaptocysteine ( SAMC ) which could be utilized for GSH biogenesis ( 221,222 ) . Allium sativa infusion besides contains dially sulphide ( DAS ) and diallyl disulphide ( DADS, known to hold strong cut downing belongingss ) , and allixin, antioxidant minerals ( e.g. Se ) , and fructosyl amino acids such as fructosyl glutamic acid and fructosyl arginine.39, 40 Administration of fresh Ugandan Allium sativum infusion prevented lipid peroxidation and depletion of liver glutathione shops and antioxidant enzymes in mice. Regular ingestion of Ugandan Allium sativum would therefore protect the organic structure against the toxic effects of oxidative emphasis and protect from assorted diseases which are known to be associated with oxidative emphasis. Mentions Waris G, Ahson H. Reactive O species: function in the development of malignant neoplastic disease and assorted chronic conditions. J Carcinog 2006 ; 4:14. Dugan LL, Quick KL. Reactive O species and aging: Evolving inquiries. Sci Aging Knowl Environ 2005 ; 2005 ( 26 ) :20. Prasad K, Kalra J. 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Nweke I, Ohaeri OC, Ezeala C. Effect Of Vitamin On Malondialdehyde And Glutathione Levels In Type 2 Diabetic Nigerians.The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness.2009 Volume 7 Number 2. Paiva SA, Russell RM. Beta-carotene and other carotenoids as antioxidants. J Am Coll Nutr.1999 ; 18 ( 5 ) :426-33 Burk RF. Selenium, an antioxidant food. Nutr Clin Care.2002 ; 5 ( 2 ) :75-9 Wolfe KL, Kang X, He X, Dong M, Zhang Q, Liu RH. Cellular antioxidant activity of common fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry2008 ; 56 ( 18 ) :8418-842. Borek C. Antioxidant wellness effects of aged garlic infusion. Journal of Nutrition.2001 ; 131:1010S-1015S. Mukherjee S, Banerjee SK, Maulik M, Dinda AK, Talwa KK, Maulik SK. Protection against acute adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity by Allium sativum: Function of endogenous antioxidants and suppression of TNF-a look BMC Pharmacol.2003 ; 3: 16. Ezeala CC, I. N. Nweke IN, Unekwe PC, El-Safty IA, Nwaegerue E. Fresh Garlic Extract Protects The Liver Against Acetaminophen-Induced Toxicity.The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness.2009 Volume 7 Number 1 Green OC, Polydoris NG. Garlic, malignant neoplastic disease and bosom disease: Reappraisal and recommendations. Chicago, IL: GN Communications ; 1993. p. 21-41. Sohn DW, Han CH, Jung YS, Kim SI, Kim SW, Cho YH. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobic effects of garlic and interactive consequence between Allium sativum and Cipro in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat theoretical account. Int J Antimicrob Agents.2009 Apr 16. [ Epub in front of print ] . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19375896 Bernas GC, Gonzales RE, Solevilla RC, Ysrael MC. Pharmacology-Toxicology. In: Guevara BQ, editor. A guide book to works showing: Phytochemical and biological. Santo Tomas Philippines: Research Centre for Natural Sciences, university of Santo Tomas ; 2004. P. 103-132. Litchfield JT, Wilcoxon F. 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Andorfer JH, Tchaikovskaya T, Listowsky I. Selective look of glutathione S-transferase cistrons in the murine GI piece of land in response to dietetic organosulfur compounds Carcinogenesis 2004 ; 25 ( 3 ) :359-367. Davies MH, Schnell RC. Oltipraz-induced betterment of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in hamsters. II. Competitive shunt in metamorphosis via glucuronidation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1991 ; 109 ( 1 ) :29-40. Ide N, Lau BH. Garlic compounds protect vascular endothelial cells from oxidized low denseness lipoprotein-induced hurt. J Pharm Pharmacol 1997 ; 49:908-911. OBrein J, Gillies DG. Merchandise of the milliard reaction in aged garlic infusion are antioxidants. Newport Beach CA: Nutrition and Health Benefits of Garlic as a Supplement Conference ; 1998. P. 66 ( Abstract ) .

Monday, March 9, 2020

Yahoo Case Analysis Example

Yahoo Case Analysis Example Yahoo Case Analysis – Case Study Example Yahoo case analysis Yahoo!’s Strategy and its Transition under the Different CEO’s Yahoo!’s original strategy was to capitalize on advertisement revenues for its income and profitability. This implied attraction and retention of advertisers through maintaining an audience base that the advertisers would target. The strategy experienced multiple transitions under different CEO’s but with the aims of sustaining profitability and value to investors. Semel replaced Koogle as the company’s chief executive and changed the strategy to target diversified sources of revenues that included job search services and music services. Acquisition of firms that offered this services became part of the strategy that also included development of the company’s own search engine. With the appointment of Bartz, Yahoo!’s strategy shifted to managerial efficiency and content quality in which reshuffles and employee turnover occurred. Transition in strategy al so occurred under Mayer with focus on employees’ morale, quality content, and innovation. These changes in strategy have however focused on ensuring profitability and satisfaction of the company’s investors. Marissa’s Initiatives for Configuring Yahoo, Remaining Challenges and Analysis of Success PossibilityMarissa Mayer has initiated diversified changes in her bid to configure Yahoo! She has offered employees new phones and free services at the cafeteria in an attempt to boost employees’ morale. She has also changed Yahoo!’s web page and brought in new talent for quality improvements. She has also changed the organization’s human resource tradition of working from home and required all employees to work from the company’s offices. Mayer has succeeded in reviving the company and the remaining challenges are need for sustainability and need for improvements. Based on her experience with a competing firm and the success that she has mad e, since previous executives failed to attain this, she is likely to succeed in ensuring sustainability and improvement in the firm’s revenue, investors’ satisfaction, and customers’ base.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Ultimate Nature Food Project Proposal Assignment

Ultimate Nature Food Project Proposal - Assignment Example The company has diversified its services to include stocking and supply of health supplements. The idea behind the formation of the company was initiated by three entrepreneurs who are graduates from different Universities. During its startup, the company had only a handful of workers. The working force has since increased with the gradual growth of the business. The company was co-founded by Thomas Welbeck, Daniel Frasch, and Rebecca Roberts. Mr. Wellbeck is a Harvard graduate, holding a degree in economics. Frasch and Roberts are graduates of Yale University. They both hold master’s degree in management. The three are the directors of the Ultimate Nature Food. The company has added staff members that oversee the managerial operations on behalf of the directors. The members include James Rafaela, Lorna Randon, Collins Dale and Wayne Weldon. The members hold different degrees from different universities in the United Kingdom. The company operates under the guidance of the laws enacted by the UK government to control business activities (Baourakis 125). The business startup capital was raised through individual efforts and grants provided by the Prince’s Trust. Part of the initial capital raised by the founders was used in acquiring a building that housed the first offices of the business. The startup capital has been used in st ocking produce and conducting viable market research. The company was formed following a preliminary investigation that was conducted to determine a business venture that was considered a potential market opportunity in the city of Brixton. Though the business was established when other market players providing the same services as Ultimate Nature Food were in existence, the idea behind the formation of the company was based on the need to provide quality products at a satisfactory price.